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Figure 1. A point is the intersection of a 4D vector with the 3D subspace where $$w = 1$$.

In the 4D projective geometric algebra $$\mathcal G_{3,0,1}$$, a point $$\mathbf p$$ is a vector having the general form

$$\mathbf p = p_x \mathbf e_1 + p_y \mathbf e_2 + p_z \mathbf e_3 + p_w \mathbf e_4$$ .

All points possess the geometric property.

The bulk of a point is given by its $$x$$, $$y$$, and $$z$$ coordinates, and the weight of a point is given by its $$w$$ coordinate. A point is unitized when $$p_w^2 = 1$$.

If the weight of a point is zero (i.e., its $$w$$ coordinate is zero), then the point lies at infinity in the direction $$(x, y, z)$$, and it cannot be unitized. A point with zero weight can also be interpreted as a direction vector, and it is normalized to unit length by dividing by its bulk norm, which is $$\sqrt{p_x^2 + p_y^2 + p_z^2}$$.

When used as an operator in the sandwich product, a unitized point is a specific kind of flector that performs an inversion through itself.

See Also